By Pentti O. Kettunen

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24 illustrates this schematically. Fig. 24. The appearance of different structural components in different sections of the cell wall /1,19/. Courtesy of Carl Hanser-Verlag). 500 N/mm2. The reduction of strength in the microfibril is partially due to the amorphous sections in the microfibril and partially due to the weak van der Waals bonding on the face b-c of the crystalline sections of the microfibril (see Fig. 12). Furthermore, the water capable of penetrating in the amorphous sections of the microfibril can somewhat also weaken the hydrogen bonds between the molecular chains.

Fig. 42. Proportional strength of polyurethane at the strain 15 % as a function of applied strain rate, measured at 25 oC, 50 oC and 75 oC /23/. Courtesy of Dr. Vuoristo. 47 48 Advances in Materials Science of Wood Fig. 43. Influence of strain rate on the shape of the strain-hardening curve of the sapwood of pine (Pinus sylvestris) determined in tension at strain rates of 2x10-5 s-1and 1x10-3 s-1. Moisture content of specimens is about 7 % /1/. As compared with Fig. 42, the strain rates of Fig.

The left-handed one. 50 Advances in Materials Science of Wood Such timber “lives”(changes its shape) easily as a function of moisture content and/or temperature. In old time, people did not accept such timber for the use in house building. In an older tree, the grain deviation appears both as left- and right-handed. In balks and thicker timber, the two kinds of grain deviation balance one another (at lest partially) reducing the possibilities of large scale “living”. In thin boards, “living” can still appear depending on the section of the stem, from which the board is produced.

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