By C. H. Whiteley

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No-one ever supposed physical importance is very small. that a complete deterministic account of the world was possible in practice, or that Laplace's superhuman calculator could be made flesh and dwell among us. What the mechanistic determinists said was that every particle of matter had a determinate position and velocity, that these positions An 22 and velocities Introduction to Metaphysics determined everything that happened in the universe, and that it was the business of the physicist to discover them as exactly as he could.

In this case there would be, in a sense, different levels of reality, and different stages of development, in the history of the world. We may, then, admit that living organisms, with their characteristic of consciousness and all that goes with it, have been produced by inorganic matter without external assistance, and at the same time hold that the peculiar characteristics of conscious beings are causally operative in the process of nature, the material. 23. and are not purely effects or shadows of ARGUMENT THAT A NON-PHYSICAL CAUSE CANNOT HAVE PHYSICAL EFFECTS But here we must meet another kind of argument on which materialists often rely namely, the difficulty of discovering, or even conceiving, how conscious mind can produce any effect on the material world with which it is ; " The physical world, according argued to our knowledge of it (which is by far the most extensive and accurate knowledge we have of anything) is governed by a implicated.

Independent of body. The majority of the established correlations are cases of this kind, where independent physical causes of die brain-state can be traced, and the whole process explained in physical terms without reference to the mind. , the secretions of the glands are a matter of ordinary chemistry, and the conscious mind does not intervene in them at all. So, if there is any causal influence of mind on body, it would seem to be limited in extent, and a good deal less striking than the influence of body on mind.

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